The time-frame of this proposal coincides with the preparation phase of new experiments in hadron physics (PANDA, CBM, CLAS12, KLOE2, SIDDHARTA-2, AMADEUS) and the upgrade phase of running experiments (COMPASS,ALICE). Most of these experiments deal with the selection of rare probes in high multiplicity environment at collision rates of up to 107 events/sec. Therefore fast, high granularity and radiation hard detectors for electron as well as hadron identification, high resolution secondary vertex determination and high speed event-selection and data acquisition systems have to be developed. Gaseous or solid targets for (un)polarized protons and light nuclei play a very essential role in experiments at MAMI,
ELSA, COSY, JLAB and CERN and will be of great relevance also for FAIR. Experiments with polarized antiprotons would increase the physics potential of FAIR substantially. The ongoing R&D activities along these lines have to be continued in order to maximally exploit the present accelerator facilities like GSI, LNF, MAMI, COSY, ELSA and CERN in Europe or non-European laboratories like JLab and J-PARC and the high intensity beams envisaged at the future FAIR facility for the CBM and PANDA experiments.
The structure of the JRAs of the present project guarantees the interplay between experiment and theory which plays a crucial role in hadron physics field. The interconnections between the JRA-projects are detailed in the attached diagram (Figure below).
The HadronPhysics3 project will improve the performance of the European Research Infrastructures, and will help to maintain their leading role in hadron physics worldwide. The Joint Research Activities will provide the most advanced instrumentation existing in the home laboratory of each participating group or in transnational access centers, concentrate highlevel expertise at such research infrastructures, and strengthen their scientific cooperation with the European Universities and Research Centres guaranteeing a high degree of synergy for the challenging tasks and common targets to be achieved. Scientists from Europe and outside will participate in forefront research performed at the accelerator facilities MAMI in Mainz (Germany), DAFNE in Frascati (Italy), COSY in Juelich (Germany), GSI in Darmstadt (Germany), CERN in Geneva (Switzerland), ELSA in Bonn (Germany), JLab (USA) and J-PARC (Japan).
The proposed HadronPhysics3 work package ADAMAS focuses on:
- the continuous improvement of quality and post-processing of Dia-on-Ir materials;
- the design and development of new state of the art detectors with appropriate RF electronics for advanced diamond assemblies.
The prime novelty of large-area CVD Diamond-on-Iridium (Dia-on-Ir) detectors is the combination of hitherto unobserved timing properties with an almost homogeneous crystal structure.
The main applications foreseen are the tracking and the ToF of relativistic heavy ions and protons in FAIR experiments as well as similar applications at LHC .
This JRA aims to advance in the R&D studies of novel photon detectors based on Multi-Wall Carbon Nano Tubes (MWCNT) photocathodes coupled to Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) devices by entirely new approaches for MWCNT fabrication and surface treatment, likely leading to a modulable photodetection bandwidth, and innovative solutions in the MPGD design.
In this work package transition radiation detectors (TRDs) and resistive plate chambers (RPCs), shall be optimized using novel materials and techniques.
The limits of free-running, un-triggered readout electronics architecture for interactions rates of the order of several MHz, will be explored.
The objective of this JRA is to perform significant further developments on the science and technology of cryogenically cooled beam sources with applications in various research fields.
This JRA concentrates on the development of particle identification solutions using the Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light (DIRC) principle.
The following tasks are focused:
- to develop new photon detection system.
- to contribute to the construction and lead the commissioning of the DIRC for WASA at COSY.
Scintillation detectors based on inorganic materials are still one of the most widely applied instrumentation techniques in physics. In particular in the field of hadron physics they will provide significantly higher light yield, an efficient interaction with electromagnetic probes due to the content of high-Z elements, a wider range of emission wavelength to adapt to the appropriate photo sensors and remain more resistant to radiation damage for long term operation.
- This JRA concentrates in the production of thin LYSO:Ce fibers.
- The final goal has to be the industrial production of large quantities and therefore, the development and test of more efficient growth capabilities.
The first aim of this JRA is to contribute to the R&D of a series of new detectors to be installed at 1/the COMPASS and 2/the CLAS12 facilities. Consequently, the objectives of this JRA are:
- study of two new recoil detectors and an upgraded calorimeter for COMPASS (“project 1”)
- study of a new cylindrical tracker, a recoil neutron detector and a forward calorimeter/tagger for CLAS12 (“project 2”).
The second aim of this JRA consists of:
- development of new methods and techniques for the analysis and interpretation of all available and upcoming data on hard exclusive reaction ("project 3").
- "Active target" TPC
- Large area GEM foils and support structures
- Large-size readout structures, ASIC and FEE optimization
The present JRA aims at studying the feasibility for the production of polarized antiprotons.
This means to pursue the following objectives:
- Investigating the possibility of polarizing a stored beam by spin-flip as an alternative method to spin filtering
- Performing polarization buildup studies of protons with transverse polarization.
- Performing longitudinal polarization studies with protons at COSY.
- Transverse spin-filtering measurements with antiprotons at the Antiproton-Decelerator (AD) for Tp<70 MeV,
- Longitudinal spin-filtering measurements with antiprotons at the AD, and
- Upgrade of the AD cooler and extension of spin-filtering studies to Tp=500 MeV.
Objective I) has been accomplished in HadronPhysics2 by a dedicated spin-filtering experiment at COSY which demonstrated the impossibility of polarizing a proton beam by spin-flip with a polarized electron beam.
Objective II) is still underway at the COSY ring and will be extended in HadronPhysics3. For this purpose a low-beta section has been installed and commissioned in the COSY ring. A polarized target and polarimeter will be installed and spin-filtering measurements will be performed.
The complete program should in addition entail the following objectives, which are not covered in the framework of the upcoming HadronPhysics3 project, and will be included in the upcoming FP8 program.
The JRA ULISINT covers three fields of large-area tracking and vertex detectors, each of them backbones of the upcoming CBM and PANDA detectors at FAIR:
- a thin fast micro-strip tracking detector system for large area coverage
- a thin fast pixel hybrid detector system for tracking in very high particle densities
- an ultra-thin monolithic pixel detector system with very high spatial resolution for decay vertex identification.
Technologies and procedures towards the integration of the three types of detectors into full systems will be explored.
In the ALICE spectrometer, in order to expand the physics capabilities of EMCal by enabling back-to-back correlation measurements, a large acceptance Electromagnetic Calorimeter positioned opposite to and down EMCal (DCal) is under study.
Thus the aim of the proposed JRA is to perform an extensive study of jet quenching in heavy ion collisions by:
- a combination of inclusive and correlation measurements enabled by large acceptance Electromagnetic Calorimeters EMCal and DCal;
- a synergy of technological and conceptual innovations for jet trigger and jet reconstruction;
- a new theoretical formalism and Monte Carlo modelization for the jet quenching.
The aim of this JRA is to perform R&D for prototypes of advanced particle detectors for hadron physics exploiting the strengths of the new photon sensor SiPM and pushing against the present deficiencies. The important tasks of investigation with the SiPM sensor are the following:
- Test of new SiPMs, integrated in arrays that are compatible with the demands of position sensitive detectors.
- Development of associated electronics at the front-end: preamplifiers, ASICs with TDC and ADC capability.
- Assembly and installation in detector systems working in magnetic fields: characterization of the overall performances and check of the short and long time stabilities.
The JRA 3D-Mom will join the proposed R&D for innovative instrumentation of key experiments at the future JLab12 facility with the expertise and highly collaborative work of European scientists working in the field of TMDs.
The joint research activities of the participants pursue three main objectives involving both experimentalists and theoreticians:
• design studies, test measurements and prototype construction for the CLAS12 RICH detector;
• basic studies of fundamental field theoretical properties of TMDs within the framework of QCD and model calculations of TMDs;
• measurement of spin-dependent and -independent azimuthal modulations at various facilities and the global
analysis of all available data for the extraction of TMDs.